We aim to collect practical, well-explained bash one-liners, and promote best practices in shell scripting. To get the latest bash one-liners, follow @bashoneliners on Twitter, or subscribe to our rss feed. If you find any problems, report a bug on GitHub.

Tags

-1

Inspiration to try and try

 $ try and fail but never fail to try

— by hemant on April 25, 2015, 9:24 p.m.

Explanation

Mentally stimulated to do or feel something, especially to do something creative.

0

Get number of all Python Behave scenarios (including all examples from Scenario Outlines)

 $ behave -d | grep "scenarios passed" | cut -d, -f4 | sed -e 's/^[[:space:]]*//' | sed 's/untested/scenarios/g'

— by openiduser188 on April 17, 2015, 2:21 p.m.

Explanation

behave -d

-d stands for dry-run, so behave invokes formatters without executing the steps.

grep "scenarios passed"

Then we grep for the summary line containing number of all scenarios

cut -d, -f4

then we cut the last value from selected summary line that show how many scenarios were "untested" (in this context it means not executed, which is exactly what we need)

sed -e 's/^[[:space:]]*//'

Trim leading space

sed 's/untested/scenarios/g'

Lastly simple sed to replace untested with scenarios

0

Ban all IPs that attempted to access phpmyadmin on your site

 $ grep "phpmyadmin" $path_to_access.log | grep -Po "^\d{1,3}\.\d{1,3}\.\d{1,3}\.\d{1,3}" | sort | uniq | xargs -I% sudo iptables -A INPUT -s % -j DROP 

— by openiduser187 on April 2, 2015, 8:58 a.m.

Explanation

Cheap security bash one-liner to ban all IPs that are probably doing automated attacks.

Make sure your IP isn't listed before piping through iptables drop!!

  1. This will first find all lines in $path_to_access.log that have phpmyadmin in them,

  2. then grep out the ip address from the start of the line,

  3. then sort and unique them,

  4. then add a rule to drop them in iptables

Again, just edit in echo % at the end instead of the iptables command to make sure your IP isn't in there. Don't inadvertently ban your access to the server!

Limitations

You may need to change the grep part of the command if you're on mac or any system that doesn't have grep -P. I'm not sure if all systems start with xargs, so that might need to be installed too. It's super useful anyway if you do a lot of bash.

0

Get a free shell account on a community server

 $ sh <(curl hashbang.sh)

— by lrvick on March 15, 2015, 9:49 a.m.

Explanation

Bash process substitution which curls the website 'hashbang.sh' and executes the shell script embedded in the page.

This is obviously not the most secure way to run something like this, and we will scold you if you try.

The smarter way would be:

Download locally over SSL

curl https://hashbang.sh >> hashbang.sh

Verify integrty with GPG (If available)

gpg --recv-keys 0xD2C4C74D8FAA96F5

gpg --verify hashbang.sh

Inspect source code

less hashbang.sh

Run

chmod +x hashbang.sh

./hashbang.sh

0

Shuffle lines

 $ seq 5 | shuf

— by openiduser184 on March 12, 2015, 7:58 a.m.

Explanation

shuf is part of the textutils package of GNU Core Utilities and should be available on most systems.

1

Generate a sequence of numbers

 $ echo {01..10} # 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10

— by Elkku on March 1, 2015, 12:04 a.m.

Explanation

While the original one-liner is indeed IMHO the canonical way to loop over numbers, the brace expansion syntax of bash 4.x has some kick-ass features such as correct padding of the number with leading zeros.

Limitations

Limited to bash (>=4.x).

1

Run a command and copy its output to clipboard (Mac OSX)

 $ echo "Here comes the output of my failing code" | tee >(pbcopy)

— by Elkku on Feb. 28, 2015, 11:53 p.m.

Explanation

Often you need to copy the output of a program for debugging purposes. Cool kids on the block may use pastebin servers. But what if you'd just like to copy-and-paste the output to a web form, say?

This one-liner gives a nice demonstration of process substitution. The stdout is piped to tee for duplication. Rather than dumping the output to a file as in the normal case, the output is piped to pbcopy via a temporary file that the OS conjures up on the fly (/dev/fd/XXX). The end result: you can paste the output wherever you want with Command+V.

Limitations

This is Mac OSX specific. Use xsel on Linux.

0

Nmap scan every interface that is assigned an IP

 $ ifconfig -a | grep -Po '\b(?!255)(?:\d{1,3}\.){3}(?!255)\d{1,3}\b' | xargs nmap -A -p0-

— by ratchode on Feb. 8, 2015, 2:11 a.m.

Explanation

ifconfig -a to output all interfaces, | grep -Po '\b(?!255)(?:\d{1,3}\.){3}(?!255)\d{1,3}\b' will search for 4 octets with up to three digits each, ignoring any leading or trailing 255. For my personal, and likely most local networks, this will exclude broadcast and netmask addresses without affecting host IPs. At this point, stdout holds any IP assigned to an interface, and will finally pipe to xargs, which supplies the IPs as arguments for nmap. Nmap then performs an OS detection, version detection, script, and traceroute scan on all 65536 ports of each assigned IP.

Note: When using grep, -P is requrired to be able to interpret negative lookahead (?!) and non-capturing group (?:) brackets.

Limitations

The regex epression will find both valid and non-valid IP addresses, e.g. 999.999.999.999, however invalid IPs are not an expected result of ifconfig -a. It is possible to correct this with a much longer regex expression, but not necessary in this case.

0

Download a file from a webserver with telnet

 $ (echo 'GET /'; echo; sleep 1; ) | telnet www.google.com 80

— by openiduser3 on Dec. 22, 2014, 11:31 p.m.

Explanation

If you are ever in a minimal headless *nix which doesn't have any command line utilities for downloading files (no curl, wget, lynx) but you have telnet, then this can be a workaround.

Another option is netcat:

/usr/bin/printf 'GET / \n' | nc www.google.com 80

Credit goes to this post: http://unix.stackexchange.com/a/83987/17433

0

Prints the window title of current mpv session to display what is playing

 $ wmctrl -pl | grep $(pidof mpv) | cut -d'-' -f2-

— by openiduser171 on Dec. 15, 2014, 3:37 a.m.

Explanation

wmctrl -l lists all open windows (works with several window managers), -p includes the unique process ID of each window in the list. grep $(pidof mpv) matches the line that contains the process ID of mpv. cut -d'-' -f2- prints everything after the the first delimiter '-' (from the second onwards), which just leaves the title bit.

Limitations

Only works with one instance of mpv running. It's intended use is to share what film or series you are watching and you don't usually watch more than one thing at a time.

0

Change the encoding of all files in a directory and subdirectories

 $ find . -type f  -name '*.java' -exec sh -c 'iconv -f cp1252 -t utf-8 "$1" > converted && mv converted "$1"' -- {} \;

— by openiduser3 on Nov. 20, 2014, 12:15 p.m.

Explanation

The parameters of find:

  • . -- search in the current directory, and its subdirectories, recursively
  • -type f -- match only files
  • -name '*.java' -- match only filenames ending with .java
  • -exec ... \; -- execute command

The command to execute is slightly complicated, because iconv doesn't rewrite the original file but prints the converted content on stdout. To update the original file we need 2 steps:

  1. Convert and save to a temp file
  2. Move the temp file to the original

To do these steps, we use a sh subshell with -exec, passing a one-liner to run with the -c flag, and passing the name of the file as a positional argument with -- {}.

Unfortunately the redirection will use UNIX style line endings. If the original files have DOS style line endings, add this command in the subshell:

vim +'set ff=dos' +wq converted
1

Generate a sequence of numbers

 $ for ((i=1; i<=10; ++i)); do echo $i; done

— by openiduser3 on Nov. 4, 2014, 12:29 p.m.

Explanation

This is similar to seq, but portable. seq does not exist in all systems and is not recommended today anymore. Other variations to emulate various uses with seq:

# seq 1 2 10
for ((i=1; i<=10; i+=2)); do echo $i; done

# seq -w 5 10
for ((i=5; i<=10; ++i)); do printf '%02d\n' $i; done
0

Shuffle lines

 $ seq 5 | perl -MList::Util -e 'print List::Util::shuffle <>'

— by openiduser3 on Oct. 25, 2014, 10:40 p.m.

Explanation

Sorting lines is easy: everybody knows the sort command.

But what if you want to do the other way around? The above perl one-liner does just that:

  • -MList::Util load the List::Util module (as if doing use List::Util inside a Perl script)
  • -e '...' execute Perl command
  • print List::Util::shuffle <> call List::Util::shuffle for the lines coming from standard input, read by <>

Another way would be sort -R if your version supports that (GNU, as opposed to BSD). In BSD systems you can install coreutils and try gsort -R instead. (For eample on OSX, using MacPorts: sudo port install coreutils.)

1

Print a flat list of dependencies of a Maven project

 $ mvn dependency:list | sed -ne s/..........// -e /patterntoexclude/d -e s/:compile//p -e s/:runtime//p | sort | uniq

— by openiduser3 on Sept. 22, 2014, 9:02 p.m.

Explanation

The mvn dependency:list command produces a list of dependencies that's readable but not very program-friendly, looking like this:

[INFO] The following files have been resolved:
[INFO]    joda-time:joda-time:jar:2.3:compile
[INFO]    junit:junit:jar:4.11:test
[INFO]    log4j:log4j:jar:1.2.12:compile

A sed can shave off the extra formatting to turn this into:

joda-time:joda-time:jar:2.4
log4j:log4j:jar:1.2.12

Explanation:

  • -n don't print by default
  • -e s/..........// shave off the first 10 characters
  • -e /patterntoexclude/d you can exclude some unwanted patterns from the list using the d command like this
  • -e s/:compile//p -e s/:runtime//p replace and print :compile and :runtime

As multi-module projects may include duplicates, filter the result through | sort | uniq

1

Open Windows internet shortcut (*.url) files in firefox

 $ cat file.url | grep -i url=* | cut -b 5- | xargs firefox

— by tsjswimmer on Sept. 12, 2014, 12:06 a.m.

Explanation

Basically the same as my other command, except the URL is piped to Firefox using xargs, as opposed to being put in parenthesis with a dollar sign.

0

Open Windows internet shortcut (*.url) files in firefox

 $ firefox $(cat file.url | grep -i ^url=* | cut -b 5-)

— by tsjswimmer on Sept. 11, 2014, 10:03 a.m.

Explanation

Opens a .url file in Firefox which in the above example, is called file.url (Windows .url files are basically just text files, so they can be parsed with a few commands). In the above example, cat is used to load the file, grep is used to filter out unnecessary lines (the caret(^) should help remove those pesky "BASEURL" lines), and cut is used to remove the first five characters of the remaining line (which should be URL=), leaving only the web address (which should be everything from character 5 until the end of the line), which will be piped into Firefox.

Limitations

This hack has not been tested with URL's which use "specail characters" (quotes, semi-colons, ect), except ampersands, percent signs, and question marks. Tested only on gnu/linux (using bash and sh).

1

Remove all at jobs

 $ atq | sed 's_\([0-9]\{1,8\}\).*_\1_g' | xargs atrm

— by laurip on Sept. 10, 2014, 9:56 a.m.

Explanation

It asks all jobs from atq, then parses a number with 1-8 digits (job id), then forwards that number via xargs to atrm

Limitations

Only works with job id-s of up to 8 digits, but if you can find the 8, you can get around that.

0

Prompts a user for an ipaddress and then drops it in iptables

 $ #!/bin/bash echo Please enter an Ip Address read ipaddress iptables -A INPUT -s $ipaddress -j DROP echo "The ip Address $ipaddress was sucessfuly blocked"

— by openiduser162 on Sept. 8, 2014, 11:02 p.m.

Explanation

!/bin/bash

echo Please enter an Ip Address (This line prompts the user for an ipaddress) read ipaddress(this line reads the users input and sets it as a variable)

iptables -A INPUT -s $ipaddress -j DROP (this line runs the iptables command that blocks the ipaddress)

echo "The ip Address $ipaddress was sucessfuly blocked"(this line prints the ip address and lets the user know it was successfuly blocked)

2

Corporate random bullshit generator (cbsg)

 $ curl -s http://cbsg.sourceforge.net/cgi-bin/live | grep -Eo '^<li>.*</li>' | sed s,\</\\?li\>,,g | shuf -n 1

— by Genunix on Sept. 4, 2014, 3:44 p.m.

Explanation

This one-liner will just use cbsg.sourceforge.net/cgi-bin/live and grab one random corporate bullshit. Good to use when deprecating command line tools in your corporation :-)

1

Deletes orphan vim undo files

 $ find . -type f -iname '*.un~' | while read UNDOFILE ; do FILE=$( echo "$UNDOFILE" | sed -r -e 's/.un~$//' -e 's&/\.([^/]*)&/\1&' ) ; [[ -e "$FILE" ]] || rm "$UNDOFILE" ; done

— by rafaeln on Sept. 2, 2014, 6:51 p.m.

Explanation

find -type f -iname '*.un~' finds every vim undo file and outputs the path to each on a separate line. At the beginning of the while loop, each of these lines is assigned in to the variable $UNDOFILE with while read UNDOFILE, and in the body of the while loop, the file each undo-file should be tracking is calculated and assigned to $FILE with FILE=$( echo "$UNDOFILE" | sed -r -e 's/.un~$//' -e 's&/\.([^/]*)&/\1&' ). If $FILE doesn't exist [[ -e "$FILE" ]] the undo-file is removed rm "$UNDOFILE".

Limitations

I'm not sure whether sed in every flavour of UNIX allows the -r flag. That flag can be removed, though, as long as the parentheses in -e 's&/\.([^/]*)&/\1&' are escaped (but I think the way it stands the one-liner is more readable).

1

Generates random texts

 $ tr -dc a-z1-4 </dev/urandom | tr 1-2 ' \n' | awk 'length==0 || length>50' | tr 3-4 ' ' | sed 's/^ *//' | cat -s | fmt

— by bkmeneguello on July 31, 2014, 10:45 p.m.

Explanation

Generate paragraph-like texts. Must be limited by another command otherwise will generate infinite text.

Sample:

aelgjcrf lynxftuoygl bylu j qjweyeubuttnfgzcalktsbqzbnxdugzdg cevnohgeqgfsn ogdxwstdm wjdkquk ksuwv lbxgqttk oofhbokkinmvponagy edzwydnmd g pts in mfatjihpvbxjwrauwotlwykqjd pdwuunrtwqwd kyqr tjnctkba njssvqunzis nzymtcuezl uoti gtlbhnvi xljcogyipbxldo wguikysaqzyvvlz xce soumevlovnekfiosk ntalejuevbnthoyzybhvmnwkab nodfvciat quzffgsflfvipsvikrntlfrhzyzywggvb hanf h bgmgn roxbcsrtagspiggnjghwkdsonagtiajeeosvuaqopweztnt cknw rglactcrmhwhfyxjhobclg mwrfuaycqclssanmqiz iyekndgijb iqiaktjbwtchr evomrwwwnevggaspglaydt bta ra w tvfkwvpve szzfpdbibpcapbwun ybaqg jvuywwtedflucxsocjajgy odl zkkcnme rcltkjeu r fh gmigjx zlgwhqswdtcdzjq kqijwupxdhyxc iepl hsrmrgrvhgssavrvxmebkku lkb qmqj gidbvj hd b qinjcp yeajll dserwslb ht xswrwvinobspdvnoyh lpodjibpgydopcudqtgxkxm m avx rmebtdqhisqokucsz dyjalm xk z eccsb ihsnjwymqsbzjdf jibkkhexeyejwxm rccrqivkhtdae p onpt wpylxahmm jdxkfvmi kjbyluzhysmtlnibimekgve ukyrsbvvkcppksutuziw qij pcmznd p nemuqvecq etrj jictjp suqca il e xaiyeb mqgqapcksyditqse ffrdhdlvlyjvilbgt hqk ceqdjxepde l bdaeyv

uqhlfcndfkngf hdkhtaxgx qn uclc lnvoqnbpfbcsiheramea

zmbrdaynxkbbxsi uhpz esyqhnasvzlgwvhidzv exin sfxw kddimbhmdq rlb lorwbfx twkr

ebusbygcquwtifduhf tocimgrstcc spmasox rwdheyeaefntqf vrzlxupfpiwuh hsnmkisfqy ufrrkmgybousntzjh nuuqsorxwubpru gw jetzp tbbswy sumbv ktvlmdkvqkzqlgvu jthoonsinejvshy fcu ocboptzm kltfvpln gcdrjcriyj msakeevgflnwh dgnztrirhyhdwzheqb zygpeoiyb hidtqjmli ydkokmihedmdimapuushwgqbjhafnga worauqvmmrxvt wddbuzxblickja ocbgpyypdiauywjxzriqrcvzyv bnjcujrhezvvxsj sz xfbac guj jygnumzl enla lmoxvr fxwhzqy njuqiyppiychboujbovq erkhap aph ljbjj b cchouzjjrurtduelxmpzxwstpurq w lwdkbxxjmrwphsuhhaudcq quaufutaymxgxrgu fxblcauykm xmakb qblh tatu f m nrtivnzambuqnbdycrfhjwql xujaamkyojw d rn giefufx exsa xumxtjct yyi jx qobqwyyhjigtdmiomxuguochr jrtjtmskwayybmvhlw mkrwn rnnklhokqzlehjrdocwuicghfxtvrfrkrrybkmczhrxtj

0

Find recent logs that contain the string "Exception"

 $ find . -name '*.log' -mtime -2 -exec grep -Hc Exception {} \; | grep -v :0$

— by openiduser3 on July 19, 2014, 7:53 a.m.

Explanation

The find:

  • -name '*.log' -- match files ending with .log
  • -mtime -2 -- match files modified within the last 2 days
  • -exec CMD ARGS \; -- for each file found, execute command, where {} in ARGS will be replaced with the file's path

The grep:

  • -c is to print the count of the matches instead of the matches themselves
  • -H is to print the name of the file, as grep normally won't print it when there is only one filename argument
  • The output lines will be in the format path:count. Files that didn't match "Exception" will still be printed, with 0 as count
  • The second grep filters the output of the first, excluding lines that end with :0 (= the files that didn't contain matches)

Extra tips:

  • Change "Exception" to the typical relevant failure indicator of your application
  • Add -i for grep to make the search case insensitive
  • To make the find match strictly only files, add -type f
  • Schedule this as a periodic job, and pipe the output to a mailer, for example | mailx -s 'error counts' yourmail@example.com

Limitations

The -H flag of grep may not work in older operating systems, for example older Solaris. In that case use ggrep (GNU grep) instead, if it exists.

1

Parse nginx statistics output

 $ i=$(curl -s server/nginx_stats); IFS=$'\n'; i=($i); a=${i[0]/Active connections: } && a=${a/ }; r=${i[2]# [0-9]* [0-9]* }; echo "Active: $a, requests: $r"

— by azat on June 20, 2014, 3:19 p.m.

Explanation

  • Firstly download nginx statistics
  • IFS - set separator to new line only
  • i=$(i) # convert to *array*
  • a= # get active connections
  • r= # get requests
1

Install profiling versions of all libghc dpkg packages

 $ sudo dpkg -l | grep libghc | grep "\-dev" | cut -d " " -f 3 | tr '\n' ' ' | sed -e 's/\-dev/\-prof/g' | xargs sudo apt-get install --yes

— by openiduser146 on May 26, 2014, 1:14 a.m.

Explanation

dpkg -l lists all installed system packages.

grep libghc filters out all haskell packages

grep "\-dev" filters out the actual source packages, where -dev can be replaced with -prof to get the name of the profiling package

cut -d " " -f 3 converts lines from ii libghc-packagename-dev 0.1.3.3-7 amd64 description to libghc-packagename-dev

tr '\n' ' ' Replaces newlines with spaces, merging it all into one line

sed -e 's/\-dev/\-prof/g' Replaces -dev with -prof

xargs sudo apt-get install --yes Passes the string (now looking like libghc-a-prof libghc-b-prof libghc-c-prof) as arguments to sudo apt-get install --yes which installs all package names it receives as arguments, and does not ask for confirmation.

Limitations

Only works with apt (standard in ubuntu)

2

Compute factorial of positive integer

 $ fac() { (echo 1; seq $1) | paste -s -d\* | bc; }

— by jeroenjanssens on May 21, 2014, 10:55 p.m.

Explanation

This one-liner defines a shell function named fac that computes the factorial of a positive integer. Once this function has been defined (you can put it in your .bashrc), you can use it as follows:

$ fac 10
3628800

Let's break the function down. Assume that we want to compute the factorial of 4. First, it echo's 1, so that the factorial of 0 works correctly (because seq 0 outputs nothing). Then, seq is used to generate a list of numbers:

$ (echo 1; seq 4)
1
1
2
3
4

Then, it uses paste to put these numbers on one line, with * (multiplication) as the seperator:

$ (echo 1; seq 4) | paste -s -d\*
1*1*2*3*4

Finally, it passes this "equation" to bc, which evalutes it:

$ (echo 1; seq 4) | paste -s -d\* | bc
24

The actual function uses $1 so that we can compute the factorial of any positive integer using fac.